The Document Examination Section NAC/CNAC was long known as the Graphology Examination Section, although its experts argued for years that their domain was not preparing graphology expert opinions but performing forensic investigations of manuscripts and signatures. From 1996 to 2000 it operated as the Document Examination Desk due to its small size; in 2000, it was renamed the Manuscript and Document Examination Section, and since 2006 it has been known as the Document Examination Section NAC/CNAC (National Analytical Centre/CoinNational Analytical Centre).

When it was founded in 1950, its tasks were to perform document examinations and manuscript and dacytloscript comparisons, while it also investigated the "counterfeiting and falsification of documents, securities and invoices" in cooperation with the "chemical" laboratory. In addition to identifying authors of manuscripts and signatures and identifying dactyloscripts, it also kept a record of dactyloscripts, which is no longer in use, and a collection of anonymous letters, which is still being used.


The Document Examination Section NAC/CNAC carries out the following examinations:

  • Examinations of manuscripts to establish the identity of two or more manuscripts, which may be used to identify the manuscript's author.
  • Examinations of signatures to establish the identity of two or more signatures, which are used to identify the signatory.
  • Examinations of identity documents and documents in legal transactions (contracts, wills, insurance policies, etc.) - establishing whether the document is authentic, forged or changed, establishing the method used to forge documents, and ascertaining which parts of the document were changed and how.


  • Examinations of latent impressions, enhancing the visibility of latent impressions on various paper documents.
  • Examinations of ink (non-destructive), stamps, stamp impressions, printed matter or photocopies; examination of printing techniques.
  • Examinations of banknotes (euro and other currencies), establishing their authenticity, note-making techniques, and identifying the source of the forgery.
  • Examinations of coins (euro), establishing their authenticity, coining techniques, and identifying the source of the forgery.